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how to transport live fish

How To Transport Live Fish

How To Transport Live Fish


When it comes to keeping fish in an aquarium, movement from one point to another will eventually turn out to be inevitable. Whether it is moving the fish for a short or long distance, great care must be taken. This is because fish are very delicate and if they are handled carelessly, especially during transportation, they may die. In this article, we are going to discus how to transport live fish in four phases.

Phase one
This phase capitalizes on making sure the fish is safe before the journey. It involves the following steps:-
• Making a good plan of how to transport the fish. Ensure you don’t just rush to transporting your aquarium fish without a proper plan of how to precisely do it. This means you need to know your means of transport in advance so that you prepare accordingly. Ensure you don’t leave your fish unattended whenever you make a stop over. Note that most fish can only withstand a travelling of 48 hours, this means you should make your plan with this in mind.

• Ensure you change the water in the aquarium a number of days before the transportation day. The main purpose of this is to make sure the water in the aquarium is clean. This does not however mean that you change the water all at once. You should rather do so gradually running into a number of days, say 20% for five days.

• Never feed the fish a day or two to the transporting day. This will ensure the fish do not mess up and dirtify the water during the journey. Just to note is that fish can survive without food for upto a week.

• Do not pack the fish until it is time to start the journey.

• Only travel with your when it is absolutely necessary.

Phase two

This involves choosing a container that will be used for transportation. It entails:-
• Put the fish in transporting plastic bags. Ensure each fish has its own plastic bag to avoid crowding.

• Ensure the fish is transported in five-gallon buckets. This is because this is the simplest way of transporting a number of fish in the same container. The bucket should be new and free of any chemicals and it should be covered.

• If the aquarium is small, you can transport it as it is.

• Transport the plants separately in a container inside plastic bags.

How To Transport Live Fish – Phase Three

This phase is about keeping the fish safe during the journey. It involves:-
• First step is to fill the containers to be used for transportation with water from the top of the aquarium.

• There should be no foreign objects in the container with fish.

• Keep the temperature under control.

• Keep your fish in a dark place.

• Do not feed the fish during the journey.

• Introduce the fish to the aquarium once again on reaching your destination.

Phase four

This final stage is about caring for the aquarium. It involves the following:-
• The water in the fish tank should be emptied into a container that is safe for fish. The water should be from the top of the aquarium.

• Decorate the tank as desired. This can be done using beautiful rocks as well as other ornaments.

• Ensure correct and safe packing of the filter media. If travelling for short distances, don’t clean the filters but rather keep them in a sealed and clean container free of any chemicals. In case of long travel, ensure you clean the filter.

• Finally, assemble your aquarium at your destination. The water should be the one you emptied from the old aquarium.

After reading this article you should be better versed on How To Transport Fish.

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how to reseal an aquarium

How to Reseal an Aquarium

How to Reseal an Aquarium

Did you ever come home one day and find your aquarium leaking? Did you find a great deal on a used aquarium because it leaks? Do you have an old tank sitting in storage that leaks? Or just one that you don’t think will hold water? This article will guide you in fixing this problem. I will go through the steps you must follow to reline a tank and show you how to do it. This whole process of relining will take roughly about 3 hours but then again it depends on your speeds. This article will strive to take a look at how easy resealing your aquarium really is (or can be). It may look like a daunting task at first but once you break it down, it’s quite simple really. In this guide, we break it down to you step-by-step on how to reseal an old aquarium tank.

How to Reseal an Aquarium – The Tank

A good sample to use for this guide is a 25 gallon tank resealed in several places with various materials including Mono caulking, and is definitely poorly done to say the least.
The Equipment
Here are the things you will need.
1. Razor knife or utility knife blades,
2. Windex
3. paper towel,
4. plastic scotch rite pad/sponge,
5. and depending on the size of the project either a squeeze tube or a caulking gun and a tube of aquarium safe silicone
6. And a vacuum for removing the debris.

How to reseal an aquarium – The Steps

1. First of all, you will want to clean the glass and remove any dirt etc. from the tank. After that you are ready to start removing the old silicone or whatever it is that was used. Place the edge of the blade against the glass at an angle and slide it under the silicone cutting toward the face that is butted against first. This will take several passes before you will reach the opposing glass.

2. Next, cut into the silicone from the other face; be careful not to cut into the joint between the two panels. When you have cut deep enough the silicone should come out in large lengths or pieces. If you make diagonal cuts in the bottom corners it is easier to clean them out. At this point, you should vacuum out the debris, clean the glass with glass cleaner (not the foaming spray as it leaves a residue), and you are ready to start taping.

3. Starting with the bottom, place pull tabs in each corner. Then place your tape approximately one quarter inch back from the joints all the way around. Note that the pull tabs in the corners should be made of masking tape.

4. Next, tape the sides. Start with the vertical runs first so that when you pull the tape it will lift the bottom run as you go.

5. After this is done trim out your corners. The tank is now ready for re-sealing

6. Now you are ready for the new silicone. Cut the tip of the nozzle at approximately forty five degrees with a quarter inch opening. I apologize that is hard to see in this photo.

7. Press it in and smooth it with your finger – working everything in until it is fairly even and smooth.

Note: It is very important to remove the tape immediately after smoothing. Otherwise you will have silicone taped to your glass and have difficulty removing it.
After you are done with the steps above, your aquarium is set and you must wait at least forty eight hours before filling.
One final note – if you accidently get silicone on the glass, leave it to cure for twenty four hours and it will peel off easily by use of a razor blade.

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aquarium buying guide

Aquarium Buying Guide

Aquarium Buying Guide

Buying an aquarium is a commitment which should be approached with careful thought and consideration. While aquarium keeping is considered to be an enjoyable hobby by many, it is always best to purchase the largest tank you can afford when you first begin. This will help you to avoid the need to upgrade later on; after your fish have already been established. Keep in mind, when purchasing an aquarium that you will also need the correct equipment to go along with the actual tank including a heater, filter and lighting to correspond with the size tank you purchase. A sufficiently large tank is necessary as your fish will be happier and healthier when they have adequate room to exercise.

Aquarium Buying Guide – Size and shape of the aquarium

Today, many different shape and height of tanks are available, so some thought will need to be given to this as well. Ideally, it is best not to purchase a tank that is deeper than your arm length or you could face difficult maintenance issues. Generally speaking, standard rectangle and bow-fronted aquariums are more suitable as these types of tanks provide the largest surface area in relation to their volume. As a result they provide maximum length for your fish to swim and exercise in. While tall column tanks can be visually interesting, they do make maintenance difficult. In addition, due to the small surface area, in the event of a power shortage, your fish can suffocate. Other options include cylindrical and spherical tanks; however, these types of tanks tend to distort the fish for viewing.

Aquarium Buying Guide – Types of aquariums

There are three basic types of aquariums available;-
i) basic glass tanks
ii) complete set-up tanks
iii) Systemized aquariums.

Each has advantages and disadvantages.

i. A basic glass tank is an all-glass tank that is in a word-basic. When purchasing this type of tank you must keep in mind that you will need to purchase everything else needed to complete a fully functioning aquarium separate. This means purchasing the filtration, lighting, thermometer, hood, stand, test kits, heater and more separate. Purchasing these items separately can be more expensive than purchasing a complete set-up; however, it does allow you to purchase exactly what you want.

ii. With a complete set up aquarium, the tank comes with a hood and some equipment and accessories. When purchased this way, you usually get a break on the individual prices. This can be a good option if you are unsure about what you will need when you first start out. Perhaps the only disadvantage is that because the items come together you will not be able to purchase exactly what you want, regardless of manufacturer. In addition, do not allow the term ‘complete set-up’ fool you. You may still need other items such as cleaning equipment, background paper and test kits; which must be purchased separately.

iii. A systemized aquarium has the lighting and filtration already fitted into the tank by the manufacturer. This can take the hassle out of selecting and fitting the equipment; however, if you want to use different equipment or even if you want to upgrade in the future, the process is not that simple. Therefore, you should make sure that the system you choose is appropriate for the type of fish you want to keep when you purchase it. For example, some systemized aquariums are better suited for planted tanks and tropical fish.

Tank position
Regardless of which type of aquarium you choose to purchase, it is important to position your tank where it will be easy to view as well as maintain. It should also be positioned in a location that is near an electric outlet. Try to avoid locations near natural sunlight as this can increase the water temperature as well as doors, which may be loud and distress your fish. Finally, avoid placing your tank near areas close to radiators and fireplaces as this can result in excess heat as well.

Aquarium Buying Guide – Conclusion
By giving proper thought and consideration to the type of tank that will best suit your needs and the needs of your fish for some time to come you can be sure you and your fish will enjoy your new aquarium for a long time.

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aquarium maintenance

Aquarium Maintenance

Aquarium Maintenance

Good aquarium maintenance practices will lead to a healthy aquatic environment and thriving fish. Expensive and time-consuming problems can be prevented by spending thirty minutes on maintenance every other week. The biggest factor for maintenance is tank stability. As long as everything is running properly and your fish are healthy, there is no need for any major change, even if the pH or hardness seems to be slightly out of range; only increases or decreases of the major aquarium water parameters will need your careful but immediate attention.

Water Changes
A key part of aquarium maintenance is the water change, which should be performed about every two weeks. In most cases, 10-15% of the tank volume is sufficient. A good method is to replace the water extracted while vacuuming the gravel, which will eliminate uneaten foods and other residues that settle on the substrate. It is highly recommended to check the water parameters of both the tank and replacement water. Most tap water (city water) contains either chlorine or chloramine. Chlorine will air out rather quickly (kept in an aerated bucked for twenty-four hours); chloramine (chloramine = chlorine + ammonia) will not. Using a water conditioner will neutralize the chlorine in both cases, but ammonia will still be present in the latter. It has to be broken down by the nitrifying bacteria present in the aquarium. This may take longer than your fish can tolerate.

Other elements of municipal water may be phosphates, iron, and other heavy metals. To find out about your tap water chemistry, call your local water company.

Filtered water should also be checked on a regular basis and should be considered part of your aquarium maintenance routine. The filter membranes could be damaged or may require replacement prior to the expiration date.

Testing the Aquarium Water
Water chemistry is not visible; therefore, it is vital to check it on a regular basis. The best way to make this a routine is to check on the tank chemistry while changing the water. The vital parameters are pH, nitrates, nitrites, and carbonate hardness (salinity for marine tanks).

Stability is the main factor with pH. pH in the range of 6.5 – 7.5 is suitable for most species, but they can adjust if slightly out of range.

KH (carbonate hardness) is the indicator of pH stability. It should be kept under close observation if it comes close to 4.5 dH (degree hardness) or 80 ppm.

Nitrites should be undetectable at all times (except during cycling). If you detect nitrites make sure you check on ammonia as well.

Nitrates should be kept below 10 ppm in freshwater and 5 ppm in marine and reef (preferably 0 ppm).

Filtration of the Aquarium
The proper function of the filter is essential. Filter inserts should be changed at least every four weeks. A high fish load may require shorter periods. Trapped particles will decompose in the filter as they would in the tank. The filter should also be cleaned once a month (do not touch the bio-wheels, if present) by using the water extracted from the tank during the water change.

Recommended Aquarium Maintenance Routine

• Make sure the equipment is running properly.
• Watch your fish during feeding. Behavioral changes are a good indicator of a potential problem.

• Count your fish. In case of fish death, smaller species can decompose quickly, resulting in ammonia and nitrite spikes, and eventually high nitrate levels.

Every Other Week
• Test your water for the vital parameters: pH, carbonate hardness, nitrite and nitrate.
• Change 10-15% of the water.
• Vacuum the gravel.
• Clean the aquarium walls. Filter floss is fairly cheap and very efficient. Start from the bottom upward and rinse out often.
• Rinse filter inserts (cartridges) with the extracted water.

• Replace filter inserts.
• Inspect tubing, connections, airstones, skimmers and other parts for proper operation.
• Clean aquarium top to assure your lighting is not affected.
• Check the expiration dates printed on the boxes and bottles of the aquarium supplies you use. Do not use after the imprinted date.

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fish fungus

Fish Fungus

Fish Fungus

Fungus consists of fine white threads known as hyphae that pass through organic material. These hyphae form distinctive patches on fish that resemble cotton wool.


The fungi involved include species of Achyla and Saprolegia, often referred to collectively as water molds. These are likely present in most aquaria, breaking down organic material, such as feces, leaf litter and uneaten fish food.

Triggering Factors
Fungus spores are opportunistic and given the chance will invade most types of organic material, including living tissue. Fungus do not harm healthy aquarium fish because the mucus layer on the skin of a fish prevents the spores from infecting its living tissues. However, if the fish’s mucus layer is damaged, fungus can quickly develop, particularly if the fish is living in dirty/unhealthy conditions. Rough handling is a common cause of fungus, but other common causes include fin nipping and fighting among fish. Any diseases that produce open wounds, such as ich, ulcers and hole-in-the-head disease, can lead to fungus.
Fungus is also associated with environmental stress, presumably because fish exhibit a weaker immune response when they are not properly taken care of. Chilling, poor water quality and inappropriate water chemistry are all common reasons why aquarium fish develop fungus. Keeping brackish water fish in freshwater conditions can also lead to fungal infections.

Fish Fungus Treatments:

i. Organic Dyes
Fungus needs to be treated promptly because it spreads rapidly, making the fish more vulnerable to secondary infections, such as fin rot. Even by itself, fungus will kill a fish if not remedied.

There are various proprietary medications available for treating fungus, usually based on organic dyes, such as malachite green. These medications are safe when used to treat most community fish, but they cannot be used in tanks containing certain delicate species, such as mormyrids and stingrays, and they are also toxic to snails, shrimps and other invertebrates.
Because fungus is not contagious, infected fish can be moved to a quarantine tank for treatment away from other livestock. This is the recommended approach for systems where some of the livestock are intolerant of antifungal medications.

ii. Tea-Tree Oil and Salt
Tea-tree oil is sometimes promoted as a less toxic antifungal medication. While it can work up to a point, tea-tree oil medication is inconsistent in effectiveness and may not be strong enough to treat severe fungal infections. Tea-tree oil is best considered as a preventative or precautionary measure -something to be used in situations where the fish are not yet sick, but they could be physically damaged because of fin nipping, fighting or handling.
Salt is not a reliable antifungal medication at the doses suitable for use with most community fish, though raising the salinity will help keep fungal infections at bay in tanks with livebearers and brackish fish. Even so, this therapeutic effect should be viewed within the context of providing these fish with better environmental conditions, in particular their needs for a basic pH, moderate to high levels of hardness and a level of salinity appropriate to the species in question.

iii. Treating Fish Fungus, Fin Rot and Mouth Fungus Simultaneously
Fungus, fin rot and mouth fungus are all opportunistic infections that can occur when fish are stressed or injured. In some situations, fish may contract more than one of these diseases, and distinguishing between them is often difficult.
Fortunately, there are numerous medications available that will treat all three maladies equally well. Combinations of formalin and malachite green will treat a range of fungal and bacterial pathogens, but as stated earlier, such medications can be harmful to certain types of livestock, so they should always be used with care.

Fish Fungus on Fish Eggs

Besides fish, fungus will readily infect fish eggs, as well. Unfertilized eggs are usually infected first, with the hyphae gradually spreading onto healthy eggs, eventually killing the developing embryo. You should keep the aquarium as clean as possible so that fungus cannot become established.
• Avoid injuries to your fish by minimizing handling
• Maintain cleanliness.

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cloudy aquarium water

Cloudy Aquarium Water

Cloudy Aquarium Water

The issue of cloudy water can be a baffling phenomenon for many aquarium owners. Unfortunately, there is no single answer as to why your aquarium water is cloudy because there is no single cause. However, based on the color and circumstances under which cloudy water appears, it usually can be pinpointed to a couple of basic causes.

The cloudy aquarium water can be subdivided into two; white or grayish water and green water.

1. White or Grayish Water
• Gravel Residue: If the water is cloudy immediately or within an hour or two of filling the tank, it’s probably due to insufficiently washed gravel. Drain the tank and rinse the gravel until the water runs clear. That should resolve the problem.
• Dissolved Constituents: If washing the gravel doesn’t solve the problem, the next most likely cause of cloudy water in a newly filled tank is a high level of dissolved constituents, such as phosphates, silicates, or heavy metals. If you test the water, you’ll likely find that the pH is high (alkaline). In these cases, treating the water with conditioners will often resolve the problem.

Another option, that has many benefits beyond resolving cloudy aquarium water, is to use RO (Reverse Osmosis) water. Your local fish shop may sell it or sell units capable of making RO water.

• Bacterial Blossom: Often, cloudy water doesn’t appear the instant an aquarium is set up. Instead, it appears days, weeks, or even months later. The cause is usually due to bacterial bloom. As the new aquarium goes through the initial break-in cycle, it is not unusual for the water to become cloudy or at least a little hazy. It will take several weeks to several months to establish bacterial colonies that are able to clear waste from the water. Over time, that cloudiness will resolve itself.
• Decaying plants or excess food that remains uneaten can also cause the milky water seen in bacterial bloom. Keeping the aquarium very clean by removing debris such as decaying plants and uneaten food, vacuuming the gravel regularly, and performing partial water changes will quickly resolve most cases of bacterial bloom. Cut back feeding to every second or third day, which will reduce excess food decay.

2. Green Water
Green water is a no-brainer. It’s due to algae growth. Getting rid of it is the hard part, but if you know the cause, it’s easier to cure. Here are the primary causes of green water:
• Too Much Light: Placing the aquarium in direct sunlight or leaving the lights on too long will result in algae growth. Reduce the amount of time the lights are on, and move the aquarium to a location out of direct sunlight.
• Excess Nutrients: Nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates also support the algae growth and must also be reduced to successfully battle algae. A water change will give some immediate relief but probably won’t resolve the problem completely. It’s important to deal with phosphates and nitrates at their source to rid of them.
• Phosphates: Phosphates come from two sources – decaying matter such as fish food, and from the water source itself. Testing your tap water for phosphates will let you know if you have a problem with your water source. If your water naturally has a high level of phosphate, you will need to use RO water or a phosphate remover to treat the water.
• Nitrates: Nitrates rise in the aquarium over time is due to fish wastes. The only way to remove them is to perform a water change.

A vast majority of cases of cloudy aquarium water can be resolved by weekly 10 to 15% water changes, keeping the gravel very clean, and using good quality food.

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how to clean aquarium gravel

How to Clean Aquarium Gravel

How to Clean Aquarium Gravel

Aquarium gravel forms a critical part of your fish tank. It serves not only as a decoration, but also as a filter. Because of this, it tends to harbor a lot of debris and waste. Cleaning gravel involves the process of removing some aquarium water. Because of this, most aquarium hobbyists will plan their gravel cleaning day alongside their weekly partial water changes.

How to clean aquarium gravel involves the following four stages with each stage having several steps:
1. Initial Preparation
2. Vacuuming the gravel
3. Finishing up
4. Cleaning the gravel bought from the store

How to clean aquarium gravel-Initial Preparation

i. Unplug the heater, filter, and pump. Don’t worry, the cleaning process is quick, so your fish will be fine. Do not remove your fish, decorations, or plants from the tank.
ii. Get out your aquarium vacuum.
iii. Place a bucket below the aquarium. This will hold the old water.
iv. Start the vacuum by submerging it.
v. Start the vacuum with a priming ball. Some aquarium vacuums come with a rubber ball attached to the end of the siphon.
vi. Know how to start up a Phython, and other similar types of vacuums, if you are using one.
2. Vacuuming the Gravel
i. Place the end of the vacuum into the gravel.
ii. Let go of the tube.
• If you are using a Phython, or a similar type, simply turn the water on the begin siphoning.
iii. Cover the end of the tube once the water starts to run clear.
• If the gravel starts to go too far up the vacuum, just cover the end of the tube and let the gravel settle. Then, uncover the tube and let the water flow again.
• If you are using a Phython, or a similar type, simply turn the water off the stop siphoning.
iv. Remove the vacuum from the gravel, but not out of the water. Try to keep it as straight as possible, so that you don’t dislodge the adjacent debris.
v. Move the vacuum to the next patch of dirty gravel and repeat the process.
vi. Do not clean all of the gravel. Keep vacuuming until the water level is two-thirds of the way full. Aquarium gravel hosts a lot of good, helpful bacteria that is important for the health of your tank.

3. How to clean aquarium gravel- Finishing Up

i. Take the temperature of the tank’s water.
ii. Fill a clean bucket with water that is the same temperature as your tank’s water.
iii. Treat the water, if necessary. Most tap water is not aquarium safe.
iv. Place the bucket above the water level of the aquarium.
v. Stick the entire rubber tube into the tank, and plug on end up with your finger. If you are using a gravel vacuum with a plastic siphon, see if you can pop the flexible tube off.
vi. Leave the uncovered end in the bucket, and place the covered end in the tank. Slowly let go of the tube. The water should start flowing back into the tank.
vii. Remove the tube from the tank when the water level is about 1 inch (2.54 centimeters) away from the top edge.
viii. Re-plug the heater, filter, and pump.
4. Cleaning the Gravel bought from the store
i. Only clean gravel before putting it into your tank for the first time.
ii. Open up the bag that your gravel came in.
iii. Get a colander or mesh strainer.
iv. Fill the colander or strainer with gravel.
v. Place the colander/strainer into a sink and turn on the water.
vi. Move the gravel about until the water runs clear.
vii. Transfer the gravel to your aquarium.

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best aquarium water test kits

Best Aquarium Water Test Kits

Best Aquarium Water Test Kits

Testing aquarium water is a key component of maintaining a healthy environment for fish. Below are a list of aquarium water test kits and some information about them.

Best Aquarium Water Test Kits – Master Test Kits
Combination, or Master, test kits are touted as the perfect way to have all the tests you need on hand. Their advantages include lower cost per test, everything has the same expiration dates, and it’s a quick and easy way to purchase and keep the basic tests all at once. The disadvantage is that one can’t customize tests; the kits are fixed to what’s in the kit. Also, the kits tend to run out of one item long before the others. It is recommended that keeping a master kit on hand with pH, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, preferably a liquid variety instead of strips is best.

Best Aquarium Water Test Kits – Ammonia Test Kits
An ammonia test kit is one of the must haves for every aquarium owner. However, not all ammonia tests are created equal. The primary issue at hand is the fact that ammonia can be present in a non-ionized form (NH3), or the ionized form (NH4) known as ammonium. NH3 is what hobbyists are concerned about, but most tests give results for the total of NH3 and NH4.

Nitrite Test Kit
Nitrite is another test that is important during the start-up of a new aquarium, as well as on an ongoing basis. It is advisable to test for nitrite monthly and any time a fish is sick or dies.

Nitrate Test Kits
Nitrate is not as dangerous for fish, but at high levels it stresses them, leaving them more susceptible to disease and ultimately shortening their lifespan. Nitrate tests are often included in a master test kit, or paired with a Nitrite test kit, but they can also be purchased separately as well.

pH Test Kits
pH is a key parameter for all aquariums, and should be tested and recorded in a log regularly. Sudden changes in pH are often the invisible cause of fish disease and death. Gradual pH changes are less serious in the short term, but ultimately can be just as dangerous to the health of fish. If using strips instead of liquid test kits take care to seal the strips well and don’t touch the pads on the strips with dirty fingers.

Hardness Test Kits
Two types of hardness tests are available, KH or carbonate hardness, and GH or general hardness.
KH, often referred to as alkalinity or carbonate hardness, is the measure of carbonate and bicarbonate in the water. The higher the KH, the more stable pH will be. GH measures the levels of dissolved magnesium and calcium, which is what we refer to when using the terms hard or soft water. GH should be matched to the species of fish being kept.

Phosphate Test Kits
Generally this test is most often used in saltwater aquariums. Phosphate is not a commonly used test in freshwater aquariums, as elevated levels will not harm fish. However, phosphate is a key factor in algae growth. If battling algae problems, knowing the phosphate level can help determine if the steps being taken to lower the phosphate levels are having the desired effect.

Oxygen Test Kit
Oxygen is rarely tested in aquariums, but there are specialty situations where it is useful. Densely populated tanks, such as those that breeders might have, or densely planted tanks are two situations in which oxygen levels may require closer examination. Both salinity and temperature impact the amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in the water. Warm water holds less oxygen than cold water, and freshwater holds more oxygen than saltwater.

Iron Test Kits
Iron is present in trace amounts in aquarium water and generally does not require testing. However, plants require iron to thrive, and those who keep heavily planted tanks, or breed plants, may test for iron levels.

Copper Test Kits
Copper tests are only used in situations where copper is used to treat sick fish. Because it is used only during treatment, this is not a test kit that is normally kept on hand. Instead copper test kits are usually purchased when giving copper treatments.

So which is the Best Aquarium Water Test Kits?
I have been using the Freshwater Master Test Kit for many years. It covers your most critical parameters all in one box.

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how to hatch brine shrimp

How to Hatch Brine Shrimp

How to Hatch Brine Shrimp

Storing Brine Shrimp Eggs

First of all, you need to start with healthy, properly stored eggs. All brine shrimp eggs need to be stored as follows:
• in a tightly sealed container;
• free from moisture; and
• in a cool environment at or below 50°F. (Refrigeration is ideal for short term storage, i.e., less than three to four weeks; for longer term storage, eggs are best kept at or below freezing.)
The above storage guidelines apply to all brine shrimp eggs, whether in opened or unopened tins.

How to Hatch Brine Shrimp – Hatching Environment

Here are the recommended conditions on How to hatch brine shrimp:
• Salinity:
25 parts per thousand (ppt) salt solution, or approximately 1 and 2/3 tablespoons of salt per quart (or liter) of water. Be sure to use marine salt or solar salt.
• pH:
Proper pH is important in hatching brine shrimp. A starting pH of 8.0 or higher is recommended. In areas where the water pH is below 7, Epson salt or magnesium sulfate can be added at the rate of 1/2 teaspoon per quart of solution to buffer the hatching solution.
• Temperature:
Optimum water temperature for a 24-hour complete hatch is 80-82°F or 26-28°C. Lowering the temperature would result in a longer hatching time. Do not exceed 30°C.
• Light:
Illumination is necessary to trigger the hatching mechanism within the embryo during the first few hours of incubation. Maintaining a light source during the entire incubation period is recommended to obtain optimum hatch results and for temperature control.
• Aeration:
Constant aeration is necessary to keep cysts in suspension and to provide sufficient oxygen levels for the cysts to hatch. A minimum of 3 parts per million dissolved oxygen during the incubation is recommended. Strong aeration should not damage or hurt the brine shrimp cysts or nauplii.
• Stocking Density:
1 gram per liter or quart or approximately 1/2 level teaspoon of cysts per quart is recommended. A higher stocking density will result in a lower hatch percentage.
• Hatching Cone:
Flat-bottom hatching vessels should be avoided. Cone or “V” bottomed containers are best to insure that the cysts remain in suspension during hatching. Be sure to thoroughly wash the hatching cone with a light chlorine solution, rinse, and allow to air-dry between uses. Avoid soap. Soap will leave a slight residue which will foam from aeration during hatching and leave cysts stranded above the water level.
• Incubation Period:
Generally, the optimum incubation time is 24 hours. Egg which has been properly stored for more than 2-3 months may require additional incubation time — up to 30-36 hours. Oftentimes, eggs will hatch in as few as 18 hours. If a smaller size nauplii (Instar I) is desired, a harvest time of 18 hours is recommended.

How to Hatch brine Shrimp – Hatching Procedure
i. Set Up: Place hatching cone or similarly shaped vessel in well-lit area. Cone should be semi-translucent for ease of harvesting and light transmission.
ii. Add Water: Fill cone with water and adjust salinity to 25 ppt (parts per thousand). Optimum hatching temperature is 82°F (28°C).
iii. Add Cysts: Add cysts at the rate of 1 gram per liter.
iv. Aerate: Provide adequate aeration to keep cysts in suspension.
v. Hatch: Depending upon water temperature, cysts should hatch in approximately 18-36 hours.
vi. Harvest: After hatching brine shrimp, turn off or remove aeration and wait several minutes for the shells and baby brine shrimp (or nauplii) to separate. Newly hatched nauplii will settle to the bottom of the cone or move towards a light source; the shells will float to the surface. Once separated, the nauplii can be siphoned from the bottom with a length of air tubing or gently drained through the bottom of the cone through a valve, if so equipped.
vii. Rinse: The warm incubation temperatures and metabolites from the hatching medium create ideal conditions for a bacteria bloom. Rinsing of the baby brine shrimp in a fine mesh net or sieve using clean fresh or salt water is important before feeding them to your fish.
viii. Clean Equipment: Tanks and brine shrimp hatching equipment should be cleaned and disinfected routinely.

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how to move an aquarium

How to Move an Aquarium

How to move an aquarium

You may need to move your fish tank/aquarium in some situations, say when relocating. Moving your aquarium can be a tedious task, but with a little planning, the correct handling, and the proper supplies, your fish should make it to their new home with minimal upset. The following guidelines enable you to walk through the process mentally, alerting you to any precautions you need to take to help ensure a smooth transition.

Moving Fish
In a case where you are relocating within your home, net your fish into a clean, 5-gallon bucket with plenty of aquarium water. Carefully scoop out invertebrates in a small, clean plastic container before placing them in the bucket.
On the other hand, when moving less than one hour from your home, bag your specimens individually the same way your pet store does. Once bagged, keep the fish in the dark to reduce stress.
Finally, if moving a distance of 1-6 hours away, again bag the fish individually. But this time, you’ll need to add pure oxygen to the bags, supplied by your local fish store. Always ensure you call ahead of time to check for availability, and agree upon a time. Live plants can be transported in bags, too, with some of the original aquarium water. Wrap leaves in wet newspaper to prevent drying out, or make sure plants are completely submerged. Maintain water temperature for your fish and other specimens by placing them, in their sealed bags, within a sealed cooler.

How to Move an Aquarium – Preparation
• Discontinue feeding your fish two days before the move
• Establish a checklist of items you’ll need at your new destination, such as pre-mixed saltwater or an ammonia-removing product
• Acquire several clean 5-gallon buckets that have not housed chemicals or detergents
• Designate a space in the moving truck closest to a door for easy access to your aquarium and equipment
• Your aquarium should be the last thing you pack, and the first thing you take out and set up
• Move your fish separately from the aquarium

Moving the Aquarium
When taking down the aquarium, save as much of the water as you can. Use 5-gallon buckets with lids to transport water. Reusing your water cuts the cycling time considerably once you restart the system, and decreases the likelihood of a toxic ammonia spike. Pack your pumps, heaters, and other equipment the way you would pack fragile appliances.
Remove the gravel and water and place in 5-gallon buckets to alleviate the stress on the aquarium seams resulting from the bumps and bouncing during transport. Keep your filter media and sponges immersed in some of your aquarium water, as well, to minimize disruption of the bacteria colonies within them. This, too, helps reduce cycling time.

For moves further than 6 hours, take out your gravel or substrate and bag it with some aquarium water. Either clean or discard your filter media, but if you do this please remember that your system will have to be treated as new when starting it up again. This necessitates a complete cycling, and only a few hardy species of fish will be able to withstand the cycling process. You should make temporary arrangements for your other fish until the aquarium has been properly cycled.

When moving the aquarium within your home, use the buckets as mentioned above. Leave enough water in the aquarium to fully cover the gravel. There’s no need to pack your pumps and other equipment, but it is a good idea to keep submersible filters in a container with some aquarium water.

How To move an Aquarium- On Arrival
Whether your new destination is within your existing home, or a new location altogether, you’ll need to work quickly to get your aquarium operating again. Fill it with as much of the old water as you were able to save. Top off with fresh water or premixed saltwater, get your filters, heaters, and other equipment running, and then add a bacterial additive to accelerate cycling. Add your plants and decorations and test your water parameters. If acceptable, add your livestock after proper acclimation.

Hopefully you have a better understanding of how to move an aquarium.

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